This thesis is part of a comprehensive environmental history research project that studies the interaction between the growing city of Vienna and the water landscape west of the Danube River. The investigation period from 1780 to 1900 covers a highly dynamic era of the industrialization of Vienna. The mutual influence between the water system and the water uses by humans will be investigated on the basis of production processes of selected crafts and the related water supply and wastewater sanitation. The selected crafts are tannery, dyeing and glue extraction, all strongly water-bound and water-polluting commercial types. To test the hypothesis that the selected crafts were situated near the Danube tributaries, the spatial distribution of the production sites is examined on a basis of three points in time with the help of geographic information systems (GIS). In practice, this distribution resulted from an interaction of multiple environmental and social factors of which the vicinity to the Danube tributaries is an important but not the only factor. Furthermore, the network of water pipelines and sewers is analysed using GIS. In the 19th century water supply for industries and crafts in Vienna had to be secured in various ways (surface water, groundwater, water pipelines). To estimate the potential contribution to water pollution caused by the selected crafts, a calculation is made, examining the wastewater produced by tanners. Accordingly, at the beginning of the second half of the 19th century tannery in Vienna caused a daily pollution load of 46.737 “additional residents”. In 1857 Vienna including its suburbs counted 636.551 inhabitants. Therefore 46.737 “additional residents” pose a significant number, especially since tannery was just one of many water-polluting crafts.