human population

Works on the long term development of population as the interactions between particular societies, their means of production and land use, their population structure and their spatial structure. Demographic investigations (number, entity, age and sex distribution, growth dynamics, numbers of persons able to work) in combination with questions of land use, demands of goods and services, consumption and social division of resources, as well as the accumulation of waste; works on the relation between population and the environment in historical perspective and on the relation between industrialisation and demographic transition; works from historical and anthropological demography, historical human ecology and historical population geography.

Following the present southern border of the city of Vienna, the rivulet Liesing crosses several types of landscape, which as nowadays mostly built and highly fragmented area do not provide an indication of the historical relation between the spatial development and the watercourse itself. Apart from the inevitable need of water for early human settlements, the region of the Liesing also provided rich resources, which allowed an early economic relation to the growing city of Vienna, whose trade infrastructure crossed the Liesing at several points.

This thesis is part of a comprehensive environmental history research project that studies the interaction between the growing city of Vienna and the water landscape west of the Danube River. The investigation period from 1780 to 1900 covers a highly dynamic era of the industrialization of Vienna. The mutual influence between the water system and the water uses by humans will be investigated on the basis of production processes of selected crafts and the related water supply and wastewater sanitation.

Most large and medium-sized Austrian rivers were channalized in the later 19th and 20th century. The main reasons were to ensure flood protection for new human settlements and increasing agricultural areas. This diplom thesis analyses the development of land use (settlement, agriculture) along the Traisen rive and the affects of flood protection on the natural fluvial environment. Three case study sites with different economical and topographical conditions were selected: Lilienfeld in the upper Traisen, St.

Most Austrian riverine landscapes and floodplains were heavily modified by the channelization and the following anthropogenic influences in the later 19th and 20th century. In contrast to other Austrian riverine landscapes the Lobau has been conserved as a cohesive floodplain, in spite or because of its vicinity to the city of Vienna. To analyse the complexity of the development of the land use in the Lobau was the main aim of this master thesis.

This diploma thesis, which was conducted in the framework of the project ”OPTIMA Lobau” comprises a qualitative analysis of human uses in the Viennese Lobau. In the past anthropogenic uses in the area of the Lobau were highly diverse. Until the breakdown of the Austrian monarchy the landscape, which was influenced by the dynamics of the Danube and the ownership relations, was dominated by an intense hunting use and game management. Limiting factors for an increase of use for e. g.

The water quality above the city of Linz in regard to chemical, bacteriological and ecological conditions can be regarded as good and an errection of a stream bath is possible without concerns to hygiene. On the right bank, the effluent inlet at St.Margarethen up to the Niebelungenbrücke does not recommend the building of a stream bath at all. On the left bank, pollution starts below the Niebelungenbrücke. Two spots seem to be most considerable for the stream bath: The best option is the right bank in the section of Anschlussmauer and the upper end of St.Margarethen.

Biological self-purification is carried out by aquatic organisms, not only plancton but also macrozoobenthos. When hydraulic engineering is done, one should try not to harm the aquatic organisms and to keep the sidearms connected, as they provide valuable habitat and serve as retention areas in flood events. In free flowing sections, natural bedload transport takes place and no macrophytes can settle down at the bed.

The Danube in prehistoric history of Europe

Article in journal

No other river contributed to Europes development as much as the Danube. Due to the southeast orientation of the Danube, it is a brigde to southeast european and oriental influences to middle europe. The Danube can not be considered a "life vein" like the Nile for Egypt, but rather functions as an "alliance vein" which brought the countries along its borders together. The Danube had several names which points to its perceived size in relationship to the action scope of mankind in former days. All modern names for the Danube derive from the Roman name Danuvius.